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Pocono Birds: Presence and Proportion on Lakes


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:The Pennsylvania State University
Publication_Date:1991
Title:
Pocono Birds: Presence and Proportion on Lakes
Publication_Information:
Description:
Abstract:
In 1991, we conducted a pilot study to test a method for sampling avian communities on a series of lakes in northeastern Pennsylvania and to determine whether differences between undisturbed and disturbed sites could be detected from a census period consisting of two surveys taken during the breeding season.  At the time, we were seeking to determine whether birds could serve as adequate indicators of changes in the condition of a variety of aquatic resources, including vegetated wetlands, riparian corridors, and lake-wetland complexes.  Although few birds are completely aquatic, we have found in subsequent studies that they have the potential to be suitable indicators, as useful as entirely aquatic organisms such as fish, sediment diatoms, and zooplankton (Moors 1993, O'Connell et al. 2000, Gyekis 2007).  Obviously, obligate avian species such as waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds rely primarily on waters for foraging, and nest proximal to shores. In addition, many terrestrial species of birds rely upon aquatic resources during all or part of their life cycle. They may feed on insects that have an aquatic larval stage that may be strongly influenced by changes in the condition of the water body. These changes may be reflected in the composition of avian communities. Data on avian communities is also relatively easy and inexpensive to obtain, often through citizen science surveys, adding another favorable aspect to their use as indicators.
Supplemental_Information:
Data Included:  Birds on Pocono Lakes - Brooks_1991.doc, Pocono Birds-Brooks 1991 Habitat_3 Large Lakes.xls, Pocono Birds-Brooks 1991 Habitat_6(5) Med. Lakes.xls, Pocono Birds-Brooks 1991 Habitat_9 Small Lakes.xls, Pocono Birds-Brooks 1991 species_sum large lakes.xls
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1991
Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Status:
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate:-75.40
East_Bounding_Coordinate:-74.74
North_Bounding_Coordinate:41.57
South_Bounding_Coordinate:41.13
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus:ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword:biota
Access_Constraints:None.
Use_Constraints:
The University excludes any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
The University makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance.
The University will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
The USER is granted permission to translate and add value to the FILES for the use of the FILES on its computer hardware; provided, however, that the USER annually notify the University of any customizing or value-adding work done.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Penn State
Contact_Person:Dr. Robert Brooks
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
302 Walker Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814.863.1596
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:rpb2@psu.edu
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.0 (Build 2195) Service Pack 4; ESRI ArcCatalog 8.3.0.800
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Penn State Data Commons
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing and physical address
Address:
115 Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(814) 865 - 8792
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:datacommons@psu.edu
Distribution_Liability:
The USER shall indemnify, save harmless, and, if requested, defend those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data, their officers, agents, and employees from and against any suits, claims, or actions for injury, death, or property damage arising out of the use of or any defect in the FILES or any accompanying documentation. Those parties involved with the development and distribution excluded any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose and makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance. Those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Penn State Data Commons
Contact_Position:Metadata Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
115 Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814-865-8792
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:datacommons@psu.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name:FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention:local time
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html
Profile_Name:ESRI Metadata Profile
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